The militias and their leaders were the Movement for the Independence of South Sudan (SSIM) (Riek Machar Teny), the Union of African Parts of Sudan (Samuel Aru Bol), the Sudan Es SLiberation Movement (SPLM) (Kerubino Kuanyin Bol), the Equatoria Defense Force (Thiopholuschang O Loti) and the South Sudan Independents Group (Kawac Makwei).  Although Kerubino Kuanyin signed Bol on behalf of the SPLM, he was expelled from the spLM in 1987 for planning a coup against John Garang and was jailed for five years.  After his escape, Kerubino had teamed up with Riek Machar, but in early 1995, Riek Kerubino was fired from his Movement for the Independence of South Sudan (SSIM) on the grounds that he had signed military and political agreements with the Sudanese government late last year and that they had attempted to form a faction within the SSIM , supported by the government.  The agreement included freedom of religion, freedom of movement, etc., and defined a federal structure with a formula for sharing different revenues and powers that were conferred on each state. The agreement provided for a four-year transition period to recover from the civil war in the southern states, with a Coordinating Council of Southern States overseeing the transition.  Riek Machar became president of the Southern States Coordinating Council. He was also appointed Commander-in-Chief of the South Sudan Defence Force (SSDF), which also included most of the former rebels who signed the Khartoum Agreement.  The SSDF would retain the autonomy of the army, subject to a coordinated joint technical committee between the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and the SSDF. Before the end of the transition period, a referendum on The secession of South Sudan with international observers would take place.  25: Dr. Riek Machar, head of the Movement for the Independence of South Sudan (SSIM), the largest group that signed a peace agreement with the Khartoum government on Monday, said he was unmasking some of its soldiers in the southern city of Juba to help the Sudanese army repel an attack. A: One way would be to bring all the stakeholders in the current conflict together and speak honestly, understand the cause of the problem, and then make appropriate recommendations to resolve the crisis.
And I think the cause of the Sudanese problem is not difficult to understand. There has always been a tendency to define Sudan as an Islamic Arab state – a country that is Muslim in Arab culture and religion. This leaves no room for equality in Sudan, given that there are non-Muslim and non-Arab Sudanese. If this can be treated with the utmost sincerity and if agreement is reached on the system of government to be adopted and on the equitable distribution of state resources, the Sudanese crisis would be over. If not, the war in Sudan will last a very long time.